GMO Explained by earthopensource
GMO = Genetically modified organism (Μεταλλαγμένα ή αλλιώς γενετικά τροποποιημένοι οργανισμοί)
to avoid any confusion, organic (aka bio / βιολογικό) till 2007 :
The term “organic” describes those products produced without the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers or other hormones. For a product to be organic it must fulfill very specific and strict conditions, both at the stage of production and cultivation, as well as during processing and standardization. Continuous monitoring of these stages is indeed the main reason for the increased food safety offered by the final product when it reaches our table.
at 2007 – An overview EU law on organic production by European Commission declares :
Organic production respects natural systems and cycles. Biological and mechanical production processes and land-related production should be used to achieve sustainability, without having recourse to genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
at 2011 – by USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) :
Buying 100% Organic, certified Organic, and USDA Organic-labeled products is usually the easiest way to identify and avoid genetically modified ingredients. This means an organic farmer can’t plant GMO seeds, an organic cow can’t eat GMO alfalfa or corn, and an organic soup producer can’t use any GMO ingredients.
ref – Organic Label Explained
To make the long story short, GMO crops officially started in 1994, user replies saying by 1970, the following countries :
Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Honduras, India, Mexico, Myanmar, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Portugal, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, United States, Uruguay and Vietnam
now days declaring GMO crops, all the other countries banned the GMO crops, but not, the import of them.
The most exiting is for Spain, all crops are GMO. In Czech Republic all raw foods stamped by ‘made in Spain’, the choice is yours!
At 2018 the new genetic engineering technology, replacement of GMO, named CRISPR Cas.
Genetically modified (GM) crops and foods are promoted on the basis of a range of far-reaching claims from the industry and its supporters. They say that GM crops:
➜ Are an extension of natural breeding and do not pose different risks from naturally bred crops
➜ Are safe to eat and can be more nutritious than naturally bred crops
➜ Are strictly regulated for safety
➜ Increase yields
➜ Reduce pesticide use
➜ Benefit farmers and make their lives easier
➜ Bring economic benefits
➜ Benefit the environment
➜ Can help solve problems caused by climate change
➜ Reduce energy use
➜ Will help feed the world.
However, a large and growing body of scientific and other authoritative evidence shows that these claims are not true. On the contrary, evidence presented in this report indicates that GM crops:
➜ Are laboratory-made, using technology that is totally different from natural breeding methods, and pose different risks from non-GM crops
➜ Can be toxic, allergenic or less nutritious than their natural counterparts
➜ Are not adequately regulated to ensure safety
➜ Do not increase yield potential
➜ Do not reduce pesticide use but increase it
➜ Create serious problems for farmers, including herbicide-tolerant “superweeds”, compromised soil quality, and increased disease susceptibility in crops
➜ Have mixed economic effects and disrupt markets
➜ Harm soil quality, disrupt ecosystems, and reduce biodiversity
➜ Do not offer effective solutions to climate change
➜ Are as energy-hungry as any other chemically-farmed crops
➜ Cannot solve the problem of world hunger but distract from its real causes – poverty, lack of access to food and, increasingly, lack of access to land to grow it on.
The genetic engineering technique
The World Health Organization defines genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as
“organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally”
European legislation is more specific, defining GMOs as organisms in which
“the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination”
Typically genetic engineering involves manipulating an organism’s genetic material (genome) in the laboratory by the insertion of one or more new pieces of DNA or by the modification of one or more of the base unit letters of the genetic code. This re-programmes the cells of the genetically modified organism to make a new protein or to modify the structure and function of an existing protein. Genetic modification (GM) confers new properties or “traits” that are not naturally present in the organism.
Among the manipulations included within GM are:
➜ Transferring of genes from related and/or totally unrelated organisms
➜ Modifying information in a gene (“gene editing”)
➜ Moving, deleting, or multiplying genes within a living organism
➜ Splicing together pieces of existing genes, or constructing new ones.
When incorporated into the DNA of an organism, genetically modified genes modify the functional characteristics – the traits – of an organism. The most common traits in the GM crops currently on the market are the expression of proteins designed to kill insects that try to eat the crop or to make the crop tolerant to an herbicide. However, in theory, the new proteins expressed in GM crops could have a wide range of functions.
What is DNA?
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA molecules are found in the nucleus of everycell. Within the DNA molecule are segments called genes, which can number in the tens of thousands. Genes contain the instructions that guide the development and functioning of all known living organisms and viruses. The main role of DNA is the storage of biological information. Information stored within genes is expressed as physical characteristics or traits, such as height, dark skin, red hair, orblue eyes. There are four subunits of the DNA molecule, called “bases”. These are the “letters” of the genetic alphabet. Information is stored in DNA in the sequence of these letters, just as information is stored on this page in the sequence of the letters of our 26-letter alphabet. Each gene is a specific sequence of genetic letters and can be likened to a blueprint, recipe or code for a specific protein or set of proteins. The genome of an organism is the collection of all the genes needed to construct, either directly or indirectly, all components of the organism’s cells. Most genes encode information for proteins, which can function in any of four different ways:
➜ As the structural building blocks of an organism’s body, forming physical structures such as cell walls and organs
➜ As enzymes – proteins that catalyze the biochemical reactions needed to maintain life
➜ As intracellular signalling and regulatory molecules, controlling the function of genes, metabolic pathways, cells and organs
➜ As regulatory molecules or peptide hormones that govern many physiological processes from outside the cells.
The latest estimates indicate that humans have around 21,000 different genes that code for proteins, roughly the same number as a fruit fly. Crop plants, on the other hand, such as rice, wheat, maize and soybeans, contain 30,000–50,000 genes. Clearly, the information content rather than the quantity of genes is most important in determining the characteristics of an organism.
It also used to be thought that one gene coded for one protein. However, since the number of protein functions in humans and other mammals is estimated at more than 200,000, it is clear that there must be ways of obtaining more than one protein from a given gene. It is now known that most genes (at least 60%) encode for more than one protein.
Finally, it is worth noting that many genes do not encode proteins. Rather, they produce ribonucleic acid (RNA) copies of themselves of various sizes. These RNA molecules perform structural, regulatory, and catalytic roles, and are involved in vital cellular processes, including the manufacture of proteins and controlling the function of other genes. For example, RNA molecules can control how much of a certain protein is made from a given gene.
In summary, it is now obvious that gene organisation within DNA is not random and that control of gene function consists of a finely balanced, highly complex network of interactions, which scientists do not fully understand. It is also evident that, because the genes of an organism are an interconnected network, a single disturbance in gene organisation or function can affect multiple gene systems, with serious downstream consequences in terms of the cellular function and health of the organism.
It is also important to keep in mind that because of the complexity of gene systems, the effects of even a single disturbance are not predictable. This is illustrated by the fact that altering a single letter of the genetic code of a single gene can be a significant step leading to cancer, a disease that involves alterations in the function of multiple genes, proteins and cellular systems. Except in a few circumstances, every cell of an organism (human, animal, plant) contains the whole genome of that organism: that is, the total collection of genetic information specifying, either directly or indirectly, all aspects of the structure and function of the organism. When cells multiply and reproduce themselves, the total genome is duplicated (“DNA replication”) before the cell divides. The complete genome is passed on to both “daughter” cells. The manufacture of all types of proteins from the information contained in genes is a multistep series of reactions:
1. The corresponding genes are copied into messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), a process known as transcription.
2. After transcription, the mRNA is transported out of the cell’s nucleus to its outer compartment, known as the cytoplasm.
3. Once in the cytoplasm, the genetic information within mRNA is decoded or “translated” to build the desired proteins.
This process is summarized in what is known as the central dogma of molecular biology: DNA makes RNA makes protein.
Genetic engineering theory and practice
Just as magnetic tape can be used to store electronic information such as music or video, DNA stores genetic information. And just as a sound engineer cuts and splices magnetic tape to make a complete recording of a song, genetic engineers use the techniques of genetic modification or genetic engineering to cut and splice DNA. They use these techniques to isolate, modify and move DNA and the genetic information it carries between both related and unrelated organisms. The central concept of genetic engineering is that by cutting and splicing the DNA of an organism, new functions, characteristics, or traits can be introduced into that organism. The assumption is that the resulting organism will be identical to the non-genetically modified original, except that it will have the new trait that is conferred by the new gene introduced by the genetic engineer. This is a simple and elegant concept. But the actual practice of genetic engineering is not so simple and elegant. The genetic engineering process is not precise or predictable. Genes do not function as isolated units but interact with each other and their environment in complex ways that are not well understood or predictable. The genetic engineering process can disrupt the host organism’s genome or genetic functioning in unexpected ways, resulting in unpredictable and unintended changes in the function and structure of the genetically modified organism. This in turn can result in the presence of unexpected toxins or allergens or altered nutritional value and the engineered organism can have unexpected and harmful effects on the environment.
Myth: Genetic engineering is just an extension of natural breeding
Truth: Genetic engineering is different from natural breeding and poses special risks
Natural breeding can only take place between closely related forms of life (cats with cats, not cats with dogs; wheat with wheat, not wheat with tomatoes or fish). In this way, the genes that carry information for all parts of the organism are passed down the generations in an orderly way. GM, in contrast, is an artificial laboratory-based technique that is specifically designed to enable the transfer of genes between unrelated or distantly related organisms. It even enables the introduction of synthetic DNA into the genome of living organisms. In an attempt to reassure the public and regulators about GMO safety, GMO developer companies are now focusing on transferring genes from a related organism or the same organism (so-called “cisgenesis”). For example, a gene from one potato may be inserted into another variety of potato. However, even in cisgenesis, a new GM gene unit may contain genetic elements from other organisms, including bacteria or viruses. Cisgenesis also involves the same laboratory methods that are used in genetic engineering and thus carries the potential for unexpected knock-on effects.
The steps of genetic modification
The steps by which GM crops are created make it clear that genetic engineering is not an extension of natural breeding. It is not natural, as the particular combinations of genes put together in the GM gene cassette and the manner in which it is inserted into the host organism would never occur in nature.
1. Isolation of the gene of interest
Genetic engineering confers a new trait on an organism by introducing the gene for a trait into the genome of that organism. The first step in that process is to identify the gene for the trait of interest and to isolate it. Using existing knowledge about the genome of a given organism, the gene of interest encoding the desired trait is identified and “cloned”. That means the gene is physically isolated and propagated in a GM bacterium as part of a DNA molecule known as a plasmid. The vast majority of currently commercialized GMOs are engineered to tolerate being sprayed with one or more herbicides or to produce one or more insecticides
2. Cutting and splicing – generation of the GM gene cassette for introduction into the plant
Before being used to produce a GM plant, the gene of interest must be joined up with appropriate genetic control elements that will allow it to be switched on within its new plant host, so that it will efficiently produce the protein that it encodes. Other elements are also spliced into or around the gene for various purposes. Most prominent among the genetic control elements that are spliced to the gene of interest are “promoter” and “termination” sequences. The promoter marks the beginning of the gene. It attracts and binds multi-protein complexes, called the gene expression machinery. This machinery reads the DNA sequence of the gene and synthesizes a complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) copy of the gene sequence. The termination element, as the name implies, marks the end of the gene and causes the synthesis process to stop. Promoter and termination elements must be sourced from organisms that will allow them to work in the GM plant. These can be from either plants or, more frequently, plant viruses such as the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Promoters from plant viruses are usually preferred because they are more potent than plant gene promoters, allowing the GM gene to be expressed at higher levels and hence allowing higher production of the GM protein. If the gene of interest is not from a plant (for example, if it is from a bacterium or animal), it is typically modified in other ways as well, to make it more compatible with the gene expression machinery of the recipient plant cells. Genetic engineers use a variety of enzymes to cut DNA into specific sequences and to splice the various pieces of DNA into the plasmid that carries the cloned gene or gene of interest. The result of many cutting and splicing steps is the complete genetically engineered construct, called the gene cassette.
How unnatural is genetic engineering and does it matter?
Some aspects of plant genetic engineering are unique to the GM process and do not occur in other types of plant breeding. They include the artificial construction of the GM gene cassette, which contains new synthetic genes and combinations of gene control elements that have never existed before in nature. Also, genetic engineering enables genes to be transferred not only between different species but also between different kingdoms – for example, from animals or humans into plants. Therefore genetic engineering evades natural barriers between species and kingdoms that have evolved over millennia.
Moreover, genetic engineering can introduce purely synthetic genes, thus, for better or worse, expanding the range of possible genes to the frontiers of the human imagination. The fact that the GM transformation process is unnatural and artificial does not automatically make it undesirable or dangerous. It is the consequences of the procedure, combined with the current lack of systematic assessment of potential risks, that give cause for concern, as detailed in subsequent sections.
What biotechnology and biotech corporations like Monsanto have done, is they have allowed the transfer of genes from one kingdom to the other without any regard for the biological limitations, or constraints. The problem with this is that it is based on very bad science.
Link between the introduction of GMOs and an increased number of diseases developed by the cows
latest news through this link
2018 – The advent of new genetic engineering technologies, namely CRISPR Cas, is now about to change the game substantially. It will probably open a new chapter of the GMO dispute.
March 2018 – New CRISPR Technology Targets RNA
Genome editing is of great interest in the prevention and treatment of human diseases
Cells altered with CRISPR may be missing key anti-cancer mechanisms, increasing the risk that those cells will initiate tumors. CRISPR, the cellular repair process introduces a lot of errors—deletions and the scrambling of genetic code—to the DNA during the repair process. The reason that these extensive mutations had been overlooked in previous CRISPR research is because the errors often occur far from the site that was edited by CRISPR.
more >> July 2018 – DNA Damage from CRISPR Has Been ‘Seriously Underestimated’
February 2018 – Bill Gates calls GMOs ‘perfectly healthy’
ref – Gene technology
ref – Hormones Explained
Ελλάδα, Κορινθία (user reply)
Ξέρεις από πότε υπάρχουν ? στη δεκαετία του 70 θυμάμαι τους γεωπόνους στο χωριό μου που διαφήμιζαν με σθένος τους νέους σπόρους “υβρίδια” βελτιωμένων ποικιλιών.
ε εκεί άρχισε το καλαμπούρι, από τότε είχαν μπει τα μεταλλαγμένα στο τραπέζι
Έπεφταν οι κουτοί οι αγρότες γιατί θα είχαν πιο πολλή παραγωγή, πιο ποιοτική και με λιγότερα δηλητήρια, σαν τρελοί να τα πάρουν, μετά από μερικές γεννιές σπόρων προσαρμόστηκαν και τα ζιζάνια και τα έντομα και μεταλλάχτηκαν, και ήθελαν τότε ακόμη πιο ισχυρά δηλητήρια από πριν, και ράντιζαν χωρίς προφυλάξεις χωρίς μάσκες και προφυλάξεις, “ακίνδυνα” έλεγαν οι γεωπόνοι.
Θυμάμαι που έβγαιναν οι παπούδες από το κτήμα με την ψεκαστήρα στην πλάτη λουσμένοι από το δηλητήριο και το δέρμα τους ήταν πράσινο!!!!!! Αμέσως έπιναν γάλα και έκαναν εμετό για να φύγει αυτό που ρούφηξαν.
Όλη αυτή η γενιά πήγε από καρκίνο στο πάγκρεας, μετά απαγορεύτηκαν αυτά τα φάρμακα ως άκρως επικίνδυνα, ουσιαστικά νομίζω ότι τότε έληξε και η δράση τους και δεν είχαν πρόβλημα να τα απαγορεύσουν γιατί βγήκαν τα επόμενα. Αλλά ήταν πια προιδεασμένοι και τους έλεγαν να έχετε προφυλάξεις. Παπάρια, με καμία προφύλαξη, τίποτα δεν τα κρατά αυτα όταν τα λούζεσαι καθημερινά και το χειρότερο ? ράντιζαν και μετά το ανέπνεαν, την επόμενη , τη μεθεπόμενη κλπ
Αυτή η νέα γενιά των πατεράδων μας πήγε από καρκίνο στον πνεύμονα και μεταστάσεις στο κεφάλι, τωρα τρέχει η τρίτη γεννιά και κάνω το σταυρό μου, όταν κατεβαίνω χωριό κάποιες περιόδους δεν τολμώ να βγω έξω, πάνω από το νομό περιφέρεται ένα σύννεφο κοκτέιλ από δηλητήρια πανίσχυρα από αυτά που ραντίζουν, γιατί αλλιώς καμία παραγωγή δε βγαίνει πέρα.
Όταν έπαθε πρόβλημα στον πνεύμονα ο πατέρας μου και μπήκε στο Σωτηρία, έμαθα ότι το 70% ανθρώπων που νοσηλευόντουσαν, ήταν αγρότες από την περιοχή μου.
Roundup is an herbicide. Many crops have been made to resist glyphosate, the main ingredient in Roundup. Monsanto, who makes Roundup, calls these seed crops Roundup Ready. Roundup has been used since the 1970s to kill annual broad leaf weeds and grasses that compete with these food crops. Roundup Ready plants resist glyphosate, preventing their death, while the weeds around them die off. (read mote)
Although banned in most other industrialized nations due to the health risks to humans and harm to the animals, Monsanto’s genetically engineered recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH or rBST) is still injected into dairy cows in the US to increase milk-production. (src)
-Αποφεύγουμε GMO προιόντα, χώρες που καλλιεργούνται είναι : Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Honduras, India, Mexico, Myanmar, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Portugal, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, United States, Uruguay and Vietnam.
-Οι έγκυες δεν πρέπει να τρώνε φρούτα που δεν είναι οργανικά γιατί περιέχουν πολλές ορμόνες οι οποίες πηγαίνουν στο βρέφος, τα προβλήματα εκδηλώνονται στα πρώτα χρόνια από την γέννηση του.
-Τα σαλατοειδή, θέλουν μούλιασμα στο νεροχύτη 1 ώρα με ξύδι. Το ‘απώλεια υδατοδιαλυτών θρεπτικών συστατικών’ είναι παραμύθια της Χαλιμάς.
-Στο μαλακτικό του πλυντηρίου, δόση 15ml, όχι παραπάνω.
-Αρώματα/Κολώνιες, ψέκασμα πάνω σε ρούχα και ποτέ στο δέρμα.
-Το νερό, δεν σημαίνει ότι επειδή είναι εμφιαλωμένο είναι καλής ποιότητας, πάντα να χρησιμοποιείς κανάτα Brita Maxtra, και να κάνεις μετρηση νερού με TDS Meter.
-Το wifi/ασύρματο τηλέφωνο, πάντα έξω από το υπνοδωμάτιο, εκπέμπουν ανθυγιεινά θετικά ιόντα και παρεμβαίνουν στα κύματα του σώματος μας. Δεν χρησιμοποιούμε ποτέ PowerLine βλάπτει σοβαρά. Το κινητό το βράδυ το βάζουμε σε ‘Flight Mode’.
-Αποφεύγουμε το μπλε φως σε λάμπες / οθόνες, καταστέλλει τη μελατονίνη, προγράμματα για όλα τα λειτουργικά.
-Φοράμε γάντια όταν χρησιμοποιούμε οποιοδήποτε είδος καθαριστικού (azax / cif etc.).
-Δεν τρώμε σόγια (ανώτατο φασόλι), μελέτες έχουν δείξει ότι ενεργοποιεί τα γονίδια που συνδέονται με την ανάπτυξη του καρκίνου. Από τη σόγια παρασκευάζονται πάνω από 120 διαφορετικά καταναλώσιμα από τον άνθρωπο προϊόντα μεταξύ των οποίων υποκατάστατα κρέατος, τυριών, γάλακτος, κακάο, βουτύρου κλπ. Σύμφωνα με την Greenpeace περισσότερο από το 60% των τροφίμων περιέχει παράγωγα σόγιας. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι τρόφιμα όπως μπισκότα, σάντουιτς, σοκολάτες ή παιδικές τροφές μπορεί να περιέχουν σόγια ή καλαμπόκι. Η σόγια είναι ένα από τα μεταλλαγμένα προϊόντα που κυκλοφορούν στην παγκόσμια αγορά, μαζί με το καλαμπόκι, την πατάτα, το βαμβάκι και την ελαιοκράμβη.
-Δεν βάζουμε ζεστό φαϊ από την κατσαρόλα σε πλαστικά τάπερ και δεν ζεσταίνουμε στα μικροκύματα με πλαστικό τάπερ, επιταχύνεται η μετανάστευση των φθαλικών ενώσεων. (plastic product chemicals (PPC), including phenols and phthalates). src1 src2 src3
-Δεν παίζουμε με την Β12, συμβάλλει σημαντικά στην παραγωγή του DNA και των ερυθρών αιμοσφαιρίων, όπως γράψαμε σε αυτό το άθρο αλλαγή στο DNA = καρκίνος (ref)
-Τρώμε σίγουρα, ένα γιαούρτι κάθε μέρα (πρέπει στα συστατικά να γράφει ότι έχει Lactobacillus Acidophilus) και ένα φρούτο για να θωρακίζουμε την άμυνα του οργανισμού (ref – υγιή εντερική χλωρίδα)